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This recognises the responsibility of the regulatory authorities in each member state to define their own required levels of safety.
The National Annex may also contain guidance on the application of informative annexes in the Eurocodes and references to non-contradictory complementary information NCCI to assist the user to apply the design rules in the Eurocodes.
Fire protecting structural steelwork. Passive fire protection materials insulate steel structures from the effects of the high temperatures that may be generated in fire.
They can be divided into two types, non-reactive, of which the most common types are boards and sprays and reactive, of which thin film intumescent coatings are the best example.
Thin film intumescent coatings in turn can be either on-site or off-site applied. The UK is fortunate in having an efficient and competitive structural fire protection industry which delivers excellent quality at low cost.
Thin film intumescent coatings are paint like substances which are inert at low temperatures but which provide insulation by swelling to provide a charred layer of low conductivity material when heated.
This char is an excellent insulator. Over the past decade thin film intumescent coatings have come to dominate the passive structural fire protection market in the UK.
Thin film intumescent coatings can be specified with an aesthetic or a non-aesthetic finish. The cost differential can be considerable and care should be exercised to ensure that the specification is consistent with the visual requirement.
Boards are also a popular type of fire protection in the UK. They are widely used both where the protection system is in full view and an aesthetic appearance is required, and where it is hidden.
Boards can be divided into two families. Those which are suitable for the application of decorative finishes are generally quite heavy, and more expensive, than the non-aesthetic, lighter materials.
Sprays protection systems have decreased in popularity in the past decade, despite being one of the cheapest forms of fire protection in terms of application costs.
This is mainly due to problems with overspray and impacts on the construction program. Flexible, or blanket , fire protection systems have been developed and fill a niche where complex shapes require protecting but where a dry trade is preferred.
Concrete encasement can also be used as fire protection for structural steelwork. At present this method has only a small percentage of the fire protection market with other traditional methods such as blockwork filling also used occasionally.
Board protection showing a heavy, aesthetic product on the column and a lightweight, non-aesthetic system on the beam Image courtesy of Promat Ltd.
Aesthetic thin film intumescent coating. Image courtesy of Promat Ltd. Flexible blanket Image courtesy of Thermal Ceramics Ltd.
Fire protecting structural steelwork , Calculating section factors. The section factor is defined as the surface area of the member per unit length A m divided by the volume per unit length V.
It is measured in units of m Section factors for a range of common structural and fire protection arrangements for hot rolled open sections can be found in the The Blue Book.
It can also be found in a document published by the Association for Specialist Fire Protection ASFP  , the Yellow Book , which contains, in addition, information on section factors for hot rolled tubular sections.
The ASFP has extensive guidance for specifiers, fabricators, contractors and enforcement authorities, and anyone else with an interest or responsibility for providing adequate structural fire protection within steel framed buildings.
Hollow sections in fire. Hot rolled rectangular and circular structural hollow sections provide architects and engineers with aesthetically pleasing and robust solutions in structural design.
They can achieve a constant external dimension for all weights of a given size, which enables them to achieve standardisation of architectural and structural details throughout the full height of the building.
The uniformity of shape and properties means that they more are efficient in certain design conditions than open sections. Fire resistance in structural hollow sections can be achieved by the use of external fire protection, usually thin film intumescent coatings or by either concrete filling with reinforcement or by concrete filling combined with external fire protection.
Alternatively, for the same original load capacity, it permits smaller composite sections to be used. Any reduction in section size also gives advantages in subsequent construction processes, including a reduced surface area for painting and a reduced footprint and increased lettable area.
Filled hollow sections will need to contain reinforcement in the mix in order to minimise column dimensions and to sustain the required fire limit state design loads for fire resistance periods of 60 minutes or more.
Design guidance and software Firesoft for the design of reinforced, concrete filled hollow sections in fire is available. The software is based on the European code for composite construction for ambient condition, EN  , the main difference between ambient and fire designs being the modifications of mechanical properties at elevated temperatures for the fire conditions.
Composite steel deck floors in fire , Fire protecting structural steelwork. A composite steel deck floor is designed in bending as either a series of simply supported spans or a continuous slab.
The strength of the floor in fire is provided by the inclusion of mesh fabric or fibre reinforcement. Mesh reinforcement can be that present in ordinary room temperature design; it may not be necessary to add more solely for the fire condition.
It is not normally necessary to fire protect the exposed soffit of the steel deck. Two methods are available for the design of composite steel deck floors designed to BS Part 4  for fire when using mesh reinforcement.
Both are described in the SCI publication, P These are the fire engineering and the simplified method. Most decking manufacturers provide extensive data on slab details for given periods of fire resistance.
These are usually based on the simplified method although the fire engineering method is occasionally used usually signified by the presence of bottom reinforcing bars in the slab.
BS EN  also contains a simplified method for calculating the design moment of resistance of composite steel deck floor slabs with mesh reinforcement.
It should be noted that Annex D, Model for the calculation of the fire resistance of unprotected composite slabs exposed to fire beneath the slab according to the standard temperature-time curve is not applicable in the UK.
Research has shown that filling the voids between the raised parts of the deck profile and the top flange of a downstand beam in composite construction is not always necessary.
The upper flange of a composite beam is so close to the plastic neutral axis that it makes little contribution to the bending strength of the member as a whole.
Thus, the temperature of the upper flange can often be allowed to increase, with a corresponding decrease in its strength , without significantly adversely affecting the capacity of the composite system.
Details of when to fill the voids are widely available. Modern steel framed buildings are sometimes constructed with the structural frame on the outside of the facade.
Since, in the event of a fire, an external structural frame will be heated only by flames emanating from windows or other openings in the building facade, the fire that the external steelwork experiences may be less severe than that to which the steel inside the building is exposed.
It may be possible to design the frame members to remain unprotected or to have reduced protection if they are positioned so that they will not be engulfed by flames and hot gases issuing from facade openings.
Assessment can be carried out in accordance with SCI P This describes the calculation process involved in determining the temperatures reached by external steel subject to a fire in an adjacent compartment.
It involves calculation of: BS EN  Appendix B also contains a method for calculation of the size and temperature of flames from openings and radiation and convection parameters for heat transfer calculations.
Some spray protection materials can also be used and some could be suitable for situations where the threat is from hydrocarbon fires.
The most common form of fire protection used on external steel is thin film intumescent coatings. A limited number of products are available for this type of application and it should be recognised that there will be a limit on the time for which the manufacturers will guarantee the performance of their materials.
In addition, thick film epoxy intumescents are used to fire protect external steel. A case study is available here. These are also available as precast products.
A case study on an engineered solution for external steel in fire is available by following the link here. Car parks in fire , Calculating section factors.
For the purposes of fire precautions, car parks can be classed as either open or other. Open car parks can be considered as a special case of external steelwork.
Across the United Kingdom, the authorities recognise that there is a low risk of fire spread and ample opportunity for smoke and hot gases to be dissipated in open car parks when certain ventilation criteria are met.
Therefore fire resistance requirements are low and the steel frame is generally unprotected as long as defined section factor requirements are also met.
The fire resistance requirements for other car parks are typically consistent with those for commercial buildings of the same height.
Single storey buildings in fire boundary conditions. In the UK, structural frames in single storey buildings do not normally require fire protection.
Approved Document B  , Section 7. This is because the provisions of the Building Regulations exist mainly for the purposes of life safety and fires in single storey buildings are not generally considered to pose a significant threat in that regard.
Exceptions may occur and by far the most common scenario in which fire protection is required in single storey non-domestic buildings is where a boundary condition exists i.
Where a single storey building exists in a boundary condition , it has been widely accepted that it is necessary only for the affected wall and its supporting stanchions to be fire protected.
The rafters and other walls may be left unprotected but the stanchion base must be designed to resist the overturning moments and forces caused by the collapse of the unprotected parts of the building in fire.
The method of calculation used to derive the horizontal forces and moments created by rafter collapse is given in SCI P ; this is referenced in Section Sprinklers in UK fire codes.
Sprinklers are designed to suppress automatically small fires on, or shortly after, ignition or to contain fires until the arrival of the fire service.
In England Approved Document B  requires that almost all buildings over 30 metres in height are required to have an approved life safety sprinkler system installed.
A reduction of 30 minutes in the required fire resistance may be applied to many types of occupancies less than 30 metres in height when a life safety sprinkler system is installed and other trade-offs are also possible.
Technical Booklet E  addresses the issue in a similar way. In the special case of large shopping complexes, Approved Document B  requires that the provisions of BS Part 10  are followed for fire precautions and this requires that a life safety sprinkler system is installed.
In Scottish Technical Handbook 2  , sprinklers are not mandatory in most buildings, with the following exceptions: BS  also allows trade-offs for sprinklers.
In general, these are more attractive than those on offer in Approved Document B  and can affect issues such as structural fire resistance , maximum travel distances and minimum door widths.
Increasing innovation in design, construction and usage of modern buildings has created a situation where it is sometimes difficult to satisfy the functional requirements of the Building Regulations by the use only of the provisions given in Approved Document B  , Scottish Technical Handbook 2  and Technical Booklet E .
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